Multi-scale analysis of bias correction of soil moisture
- Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010 Victoria, Australia
Abstract. Remote sensing, in situ networks and models are now providing unprecedented information for environmental monitoring. To conjunctively use multi-source data nominally representing an identical variable, one must resolve biases existing between these disparate sources, and the characteristics of the biases can be non-trivial due to spatio-temporal variability of the target variable, inter-sensor differences with variable measurement supports. One such example is of soil moisture (SM) monitoring. Triple collocation (TC) based bias correction is a powerful statistical method that is increasingly being used to address this issue, but is only applicable to the linear regime, whereas the non-linear method of statistical moment matching is susceptible to unintended biases originating from measurement error. Since different physical processes that influence SM dynamics may be distinguishable by their characteristic spatio-temporal scales, we propose a multi-timescale linear bias model in the framework of a wavelet-based multi-resolution analysis (MRA). The joint MRA-TC analysis was applied to demonstrate scale-dependent biases between in situ, remotely sensed and modelled SM, the influence of various prospective bias correction schemes on these biases, and lastly to enable multi-scale bias correction and data-adaptive, non-linear de-noising via wavelet thresholding.