140-year daily ensemble streamflow reconstructions over 661 catchments in France
Abstract. The recent development of the FYRE climate (French Hydroclimate REanalysis), a high-resolution ensemble daily reanalysis of precipitation and temperature covering the period 1871–2012 and the whole of France, offers the opportunity to derive streamflow series over the country from 1871 onwards. The FYRE Climate dataset has been used as input for hydrological modelling over a large sample of 661 near-natural French catchments using the GR6J lumped conceptual model. This approach led to the creation of the 25-member hydrological reconstructions HyDRE spanning the 1871–2012 period. Two sources of uncertainties have been taken into account: (1) the climate uncertainty by using forcings from all 25 ensemble members provided by FYRE Climate, and (2) the streamflow measurement error by perturbing observations used during the calibration. The hydrological model error based on the relative discrepancies between observed and simulated streamflow has been further added to derive the HydREM streamflow reconstructions. These two reconstructions are compared to other hydrological reconstruction with different meteorological inputs, hydrological reconstructions from machine learning algorithm and independent/dependent observations. Overall the results show the added value of the HydRE and HydREM reconstructions in terms of quality, uncertainty estimation, and representation of extremes, therefore allowing to better understand the variability of past hydrology over France.
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