07 Jun 2023
 | 07 Jun 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal HESS.

Evaporation measurement and modelling of an alpine saline lake influenced by freeze–thaw on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

Fangzhong Shi, Xiaoyan Li, Shaojie Zhao, Yujun Ma, Junqi Wei, Qiwen Liao, and Deliang Chen

Abstract. Saline lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) profoundly affect the regional climate and water cycle through loss of water (E, evaporation under ice–free (IF) and sublimation under ice–covered (IC) conditions). Due to the observation difficulty over lakes, E and its underlying driving forces are seldom studied targeting saline lakes on the QTP, particularly during the IC. In this study, E of Qinghai Lake (QHL) and its influencing factors during the IF and IC were first quantified based on six years of observations. Subsequently, two models were chosen and applied in simulating E and its response to climate variation during the IF and IC from 2003 to 2017. The annual E sum of QHL is 768.58 ± 28.73 mm, and E sum during the IC reaches 175.22 ± 45.98 mm, accounting for 23 % of the annual E sum. The E is mainly controlled by the wind speed, vapor pressure difference, and air pressure during the IF, but driven by the net radiation, the difference between the air and lake surface temperatures, wind speed, and ice coverage during the IC. The mass transfer model simulates lake E well during the IF, and the model based on energy achieves a good simulation during the IC. Moreover, wind speed weakening results in an 11.14 % decrease in E during the IC of 2003–2017. Our results highlight the importance of E in IC, provide new insights into saline lake E in alpine regions, and can be used as a reference to further improve hydrological models of alpine lakes.

Fangzhong Shi et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on hess-2023-100', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Jul 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Fangzhong Shi, 29 Aug 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on hess-2023-100', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Jul 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Fangzhong Shi, 29 Aug 2023

Fangzhong Shi et al.

Fangzhong Shi et al.


Total article views: 385 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
305 64 16 385 32 6 5
  • HTML: 305
  • PDF: 64
  • XML: 16
  • Total: 385
  • Supplement: 32
  • BibTeX: 6
  • EndNote: 5
Views and downloads (calculated since 07 Jun 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 07 Jun 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 367 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 367 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 26 Sep 2023
Short summary
(1) Evaporation under ice–free and sublimation under ice–covered conditions and its influencing factors were first quantified based on six years of EC observations. (2) Night evaporation of Qinghai Lake accounts for more than 40 % of the daily evaporation. (3) Lake ice sublimation reaches 175.22±45.98 mm, accounting for 23 % of the annual evaporation. (4) Wind speed weakening may have resulted in an 11.14 % decrease in lake evaporation during the ice–covered period from 2003 to 2017.