12 May 2021
12 May 2021
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal HESS.

Simulating carbon and water fluxes using a coupled process-based terrestrial biosphere model and joint assimilation of leaf area index and surface soil moisture

Sinan Li1,2, Li Zhang1,3, Jingfeng Xiao4, Rui Ma5, Xiangjun Tian6, and Min Yan1,3 Sinan Li et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 9 Dengzhuang South Road, Beijing 100094, China
  • 2College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
  • 3Key Laboratory of Earth Observation of Hainan Province, Sanya 572029, China
  • 4Earth Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA
  • 5School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • 6International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences (ICCES), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China

Abstract. Reliable modeling of carbon and water fluxes is essential for understanding the terrestrial carbon and water cycles and informing policy strategies aimed at constraining carbon emissions and improving water use efficiency. We used an assimilation framework (LPJ-Vegetation and soil moisture Joint Assimilation, or LPJ-VSJA) to improve gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) estimates globally. The terrestrial biosphere model that we used is the integrated model – LPJ-PM coupled from the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) and a hydrology module (i.e., the updated Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model, PT-JPLSM). Satellite-based soil moisture products derived from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and leaf area index (LAI) from the global Land and Ground satellite (GLASS) product were assimilated into LPJ-PM to improve GPP and ET simulations using a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational assimilation method (PODEn4DVar). The joint assimilation framework LPJ-VSJA achieved the best model performance (with an R2 of 0.91 and 0.81 and an RMSD reduced by 50.4 % and 38.4 % for GPP and ET, respectively, compared with those of LPJ-DGVM at the monthly scale). The assimilated GPP and ET demonstrated a better performance in the arid and semiarid regions (GPP: R2 = 0.73, ubRMSD = 1.05 g C m−2 d−1; ET: R2 = 0.73, ubRMSD =  0.61 mm d−1) than in the humid and sub-dry humid regions (GPP: R2 = 0.61, ubRMSD = 1.23 g C m−2 d−1; ET: R2 = 0.66; ubRMSD = 0.67 mm d−1). The ET simulated by LPJ-PM that assimilated SMAP or SMOS had a slight difference, and the ET that assimilated SMAP soil moisture data was more improved than that assimilated SMOS data. Our global simulation modeled by LPJ-VSJA was compared with several global GPP and ET products (e.g., GLASS GPP, GOSIF GPP, GLDAS ET, GLEAM ET) using the triple collocation (TC) method. Our products, especially ET, exhibited advantages in the overall error distribution (estimated error (μ): 3.4 mm month−1; estimated standard deviation of μ: 1.91 mm month−1). Our research showed that the assimilation of multiple datasets could reduce model uncertainties, while the model performance differed across regions and plant functional types. Our assimilation framework (LPJ-VSJA) can improve the model simulation performance of daily GPP and ET globally, especially in water-limited regions.

Sinan Li et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on hess-2021-131', Anonymous Referee #1, 06 Jun 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', sinan li, 08 Feb 2022
  • RC2: 'Review of Li et al. “Simulating carbon and water fluxes using a coupled process-based terrestrial biosphere model and joint assimilation of leaf area index and surface soil moisture”', Anonymous Referee #2, 18 Dec 2021
    • AC5: 'Reply on AC2', sinan li, 08 Feb 2022

Sinan Li et al.


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Short summary
Accurate estimation for global GPP and ET is important in climate change studies. In this study, the GLASS LAI, SMOS and SMAP datasets were assimilated jointly and separately in a coupled model. The results show that the performance of joint assimilation for GPP and ET is better than that of separate assimilation. The joint assimilation in water-limited regions performed better than those in humid regions, and the global assimilation results has higher accuracy than that of other products.