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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-275
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-275
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  30 Jun 2020

30 Jun 2020

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A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal HESS.

Quantifying the Impacts of Compound Extremes on Agriculture and Irrigation Water Demand

Iman Haqiqi1, Danielle S. Grogan2, Thomas W. Hertel1,3, and Wolfram Schlenker4 Iman Haqiqi et al.
  • 1Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • 2Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA
  • 3Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • 4School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA

Abstract. Agricultural production and food prices are affected by hydroclimatic extremes. There has been a large literature measuring the impacts of individual extreme events (heat stress or water stress) on agricultural and human systems. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the significance and the magnitude of the impacts of compound extremes. Here, we combine a high-resolution weather product with fine-scale outputs of a hydrological model to construct functional indicators of compound hydroclimatic extremes for agriculture. Then, we measure the impacts of individual and compound extremes on crop yields focusing on the United States during the 1981–2015 period. Supported by statistical evidence, we confirm that wet heat is more damaging than dry heat for crops. We show that the average damage from heat stress has been up to four times more severe when combined with water stress; and the value of water experiences a four-fold increase on hot days. In a robust framework with only a few parameters of compound extremes, this paper also improves our understanding of the conditional marginal value (or damage) of water in crop production. This value is critically important for irrigation water demand and farmer decision-making – particularly in the context of supplemental irrigation and sub-surface drainage.

Iman Haqiqi et al.

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Data sets

Data Sets: Quantifying the Impacts of Compound Extremes on Agriculture and Irrigation Water Demand I. Haqiqi, D. Grogan, T. Hertel, and W. Schlenker https://doi.org/10.4231/0M14-EY38

Model code and software

Model Code for: Quantifying the Impacts of Compound Extremes on Agriculture and Irrigation Water Demand I. Haqiqi, D. Grogan, T. Hertel, and W. Schlenker https://doi.org/10.4231/Q07D-J369

Iman Haqiqi et al.

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Short summary
We combine a high-resolution weather product with fine-scale outputs of a hydrological model to construct functional indicators of compound hydroclimatic extremes for agriculture. We confirm that “wet heat” is more damaging than “dry heat” for crops. We show the average damage from heat stress has been up to four times more severe when combined with water stress. The results are important for research on climate change, irrigation water demand, and subsurface drainage.
We combine a high-resolution weather product with fine-scale outputs of a hydrological model to...
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