Journal cover Journal topic
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 5.153
IF5.153
IF 5-year value: 5.460
IF 5-year
5.460
CiteScore value: 7.8
CiteScore
7.8
SNIP value: 1.623
SNIP1.623
IPP value: 4.91
IPP4.91
SJR value: 2.092
SJR2.092
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 123
Scimago H
index
123
h5-index value: 65
h5-index65
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-213
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2020-213
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  11 May 2020

11 May 2020

Review status
A revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal HESS and is expected to appear here in due course.

Hydrology and Water Resources Management in Ancient India

Pushpendra Kumar Singh1, Pankaj Dey2, Sharad Kumar Jain3, and Pradeep Mujumdar2,4 Pushpendra Kumar Singh et al.
  • 1Water Resources Systems Division, National Institute of Hydrology,Roorkee, 247667, India
  • 2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India
  • 3Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, India
  • 4Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India

Abstract. Hydrologic knowledge in India has a historical footprint extending over several millenniums through the Harappan Civilisation (~ 3000 BC–1500 BC) and the Vedic period (~ 1500–500 BC). As in other ancient civilisations across the world, the need to manage water propelled the growth of hydrologic science in ancient India also. Most of the ancient hydrologic knowledge, however, has remained hidden and unexplored to the world at large till the recent times. In this paper, we provide some fascinating glimpses into the hydrological, hydraulic and related engineering knowledge that existed in ancient India, as discussed in contemporary literature and in the recent explorations and findings. The Vedas, particularly, the Rigveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda have many references to water cycle and associated processes, including water quality, hydraulic machines and other structures and nature-based solutions (NBS) for water management. The Harappan Civilization epitomizes the level of development of water sciences in ancient India that includes construction of sophisticated hydraulic structures, wastewater disposal systems based on centralized and decentralized concepts as well as methods for wastewater treatments. The Mauryan empire (~ 322 BC–185 BC) is credited as the first hydraulic civilization characterised by construction of dams with spillways, reservoirs, channels equipped with spillways, pynes and Ahars, understanding of water balance, development of water pricing systems, measurement of rainfall and knowledge of the various hydrological processes. As we investigate deeper into hydrologic references in ancient literature, including the Indian mythology, many fascinating dimensions of the early scientific endeavours of Indians emerge.

Pushpendra Kumar Singh et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Pushpendra Kumar Singh et al.

Pushpendra Kumar Singh et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 669 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
462 186 21 669 12 12
  • HTML: 462
  • PDF: 186
  • XML: 21
  • Total: 669
  • BibTeX: 12
  • EndNote: 12
Views and downloads (calculated since 11 May 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 11 May 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 535 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 533 with geography defined and 2 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Saved

No saved metrics found.

Discussed

No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 19 Sep 2020
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
Like in all ancient civilisations, the need to manage water propelled the growth of hydrological science in ancient India also. In this paper, we provide some fascinating glimpses into the hydrological, hydraulic and related engineering knowledge existed in ancient India, as discussed in contemporary literature and in the recent explorations and findings. Many interesting dimensions of early scientific endeavours emerge as we investigate deeper into ancient texts, including Indian mythology.
Like in all ancient civilisations, the need to manage water propelled the growth of hydrological...
Citation